Lynn V. Foster's A Brief History of Mexico PDF
By Lynn V. Foster
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Additional resources for A Brief History of Mexico
The empire dominated central Mexico, which may have had as many as 25 million inhabitants. Spain in its entirety had less than 8 million people. Tenochtitlán, an independent state since just 1427, had achieved legitimacy through marriage alliances (Moctezuma had four wives) into the older, more noble cities of central Mexico. Its expansion from a small island city to an empire had been achieved through the Triple Alliance with neighboring city-states and through trade, but above all through military conquest.
Some were surrounded by defensive walls. After the year 909, not a single ruler is proclaimed anywhere in the long count calendar. The Maya continued to thrive in northern Yucatán, parts of Belize and highland Guatemala—all regions where they live today—but not in the southern lowlands. By the time of the Spanish conquest, the southern lowlands had reverted to tropical rain forest, and the Classic period cities of stone, once so numerous, were hidden under the jungle growth. Hernán Cortés, marching through the region in 1525, considered it a wilderness.
During his 16 years of rule, Moctezuma put down numerous rebellions and maneuvered his partners in the Triple Alliance into subordinate positions. In 1515, the death of one of the rulers in the alliance resulted in a struggle for the Texcoco throne. The loser never forgot Moctezuma’s role in his defeat; in exile, he remained a constant threat to Tenochtitlán. The Aztecs had many enemies, and war with remaining independent states, such as Tlaxcala, intensified in the final years of the empire as the Aztecs tried to gain more control and more tribute.
A Brief History of Mexico by Lynn V. Foster