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3. Mast cell mediators affecting cell migration Spasmogenic Mediators Histamine, generated by decarboxylation of histidine, was the first mast cell mediator to be identified, and it is the sole preformed mediator in this functional class. It is bound to the proteoglycans of mast cell and basophil granules (5 and 1 mg/10 6 cells, respectively) (24,25). Histamine circulates at concentrations of about 300 pg/mL with a circadian maximum in the early morning hours (26). Histamine excretion exceeds 10 mg/24 hours; a small fraction is excreted as the native molecule, and the remainder as imidazole acetic acid or methyl histamine.

A: The heavy chain domain structure of IgE. The binding site for the high-affinity mast cell receptor FceRI and the low-affinity IgE receptor FceRII is shown. B: The structure and characteristics of the surface receptors for immunoglobulin Fc regions. hi, very high; Ig, immunoglobulin. (Adapted from Roitt I. Essential immunology. 8th ed. ) The FceR1 receptor is the high-affinity receptor for IgE found on mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and human skin Langerhans cells ( 9). Cross-linking of high-affinity receptor-bound IgE by allergen results in the release of mediators from mast cells and basophils.

The presence of IgE antibody on mast cells in the tissues that contain heparin and histamine points to a role for IgE in controlling the microcirculation, and a role for the mast cell as a “sentinel” or first line of defense against microorganisms has been advanced. The hypothesis is that IgE antibody specific for bacterial or viral antigens could have a part in localizing high concentrations of protective antibody at the site of tissue invasion ( 32,33). The role of IgE antibody has been studied extensively in an experimental infection of rats with the parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

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Allergic Diseases by Patterson

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