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Download PDF by Vladimir Grechka: Applications of seismic anisotropy in the oil and gas

Posted On March 14, 2018 at 6:04 pm by / Comments Off on Download PDF by Vladimir Grechka: Applications of seismic anisotropy in the oil and gas

By Vladimir Grechka

ISBN-10: 1680156969

ISBN-13: 9781680156966

ISBN-10: 907378168X

ISBN-13: 9789073781689

The publication is designed for geophysicists who are looking to improve their figuring out of the subsurface and find out about smooth suggestions for extracting additional information from seismic data.

Table of Content

List of Figures
List of Tables
Introduction
Acknowledgements

1. Definitions and examples
2. aircraft waves
3. Rays and traveltimes
4. Thomsen parameters
5. general moveout
6. Nonhyperbolic moveout
7. Anistropy estimation from VSP data
8. Fracture characterization
9. Bibliography

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Extra resources for Applications of seismic anisotropy in the oil and gas industry

Example text

83 is useful for building anisotropic velocity models from seismic reflection data because the horizontal slownesses p1 and p2 can be directly measured at the Earth’s surface. , Helbig, 1994). 82 and observe that it implies the orthogonality of the group-velocity vector to the slowness surface. Thus, we arrive at an important duality: The slowness vector p is normal to the group-velocity surface. The group-velocity vector g is normal to the slowness surface. 11. The dark and light blue arrows are normals to the slowness surface.

13 with the initial conditions x (0) = x(0) and p(0) = p(0). In smoothly heterogeneous anisotropic med this would be the plane x3 = 0. 2: Rays emerging at observation surfaces typically do not arrive at predetermined receiver locations (squares). 2). If we want to find the traveltime t (x(r)), which would be usually the case, we will shoot a fan of rays and apply one of the following two strategies. Interpolation. Once the receiver x(r)={x1(r),x2(r)} is inside the cloud of the ray-emergence points {x1(end),x2(end)}, where {x1, x2} are the coordinates at the observation surface, we interpolate the times t(end)(x1(end),x2(end)) towards {x1(r),x2(r)}.

The parameters of the orthorhombic medium in this example, specifically, the low values of the diagonal stiffness elements a44, a55, and a66, were inspired by a model of the so-called acoustic anisotropy(4). This model was proposed by Alkhalifah (1998) to simplify wave-equation-based processing of P-waves in VTI media. , 2004). This strong anisotropy gets inherited by elastic media whose stiffness coefficients are in some sense close to the acoustic ones. 13b). 13d. _________________________________________ 3 Equalities c12 = c13 = c23 = 0 are satisfied for isotropy only when the Poisson’s ratio, v, is zero.

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Applications of seismic anisotropy in the oil and gas industry by Vladimir Grechka


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